1866 - Treaty with the Creek & Seminole Nations require the two nations to cede their western lands to the United States so the government can relocate other tribal groups in Indian Territory.


1869 - Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sac & Fox Indians relocated in central Indian Territory.


1870’s - Various congressional bills authored to establish a territorial government over Indian Territory. Members of the Five Civilized tribes hold international councils at Eufaula and Okmulgee to fashion memorials and send delegations to Washington, D.C. to derail congressional efforts.


1879 - February, Cherokee tribal member E.C. Boudinot authors article claiming that the Unassigned Lands in central Indian Territory is public domain. Article appears in the Chicago Times. 

          C.C. Carpenter begins abortive efforts to colonize “Oklahoma”.

1880 February 12th  - President Rutherford B. Hayes issues proclamation prohibiting any settlement within the Unassigned Lands.

            April 25th -  David L. Payne organizes a small band of Boomers to defy the proclamation hoping to settle the matter in court.

           May 3rd - Payne’s Boomers number 21 members stop  and establish the town of Ewing located at Section 14, Township 11 North, Range 3 West or  within the present day southeast OKC bounded between Southeast 29th to the north, Bryant Road to the east, Southeast 44th on the south and Eastern Avenue to the West.


1880-1884 - More than a dozen “invasion attempts” by Boomers end with leaders' arrest and tried in Judge Isaac C. Parker’s court in Fort Smith. The others escorted by troops from Fort Reno back to Kansas.  


1884 - November 27th - Payne along with Rachel Haines his common law wife, travel to Wellington, Kansas to give speech that night.

           November 28th - Payne dies while having breakfast in the DeBarnard Hotel. 

           December - William L. Couch, Payne’s second in command and successor, leads group of Boomer’s to what is now Stillwater, OK. Holds out for two months before being intense winter weather and possible battle with U.S. troops ends settlement.


1885-1889 - Couch along with other prominent Boomers take fight to Washington and Congress.


1889 - Indian Appropriation Bill includes Springer Amendment to open Unassigned Lands for settlement.

            March - President Benjamin Harrison signs bill and sets date for opening of Oklahoma April 22, 1889.

           April 22nd -  High noon cannons and gun fire signaled the opening of the Unassigned Lands for settlement. Chaos reigned supreme for the mad dash for land.